HAVANA'S NEW TUNNEL
Magazine, Vol. 1, Havana, January 5, 1958, No. 1, American
CAPTION - Havana's Harbuor [Harbor] Tunnel: a
passageway to prosperity.
HAVANA'S NEW TUNNEL
TWO CITIES CONNECTS
HAVANA'S expansion toward the East, which had been stopped
to this day
by the natural barrier of massive rocks protecting the
entrance to its
harbour [harbor], had been possible by a modern Tunnel, now
according to President Batista's desires, which cross under
Bay, connecting the Old City of Spanish colonial narrow
the vast extension of land on the opposite shore wich
rising from sea level, reach up to 60 m. of altitude
This land, until now unexploited, will develop into a new
"Eastern Havana", beautiful, modern and planned according to
conception of town planning and landscaping: full of green
wide streets and magnificent avenues.
One of the most difficult problems solved in this work was
harmonious orthogonal encounder [encounter] of two heavy
[traffic] that could eventually reach their highest peaks
simultaneously and, at the same time, insure their even
This problem was rendered even more difficult due to the
fact that the
areas available for this purpose was limited, since it had
specifically stipulated in the contract that the perspective
CAPTION - Main body of "Old Havana" is now connected to
florious "East Havana" thanks to new Tunnel.
CAPTION - All historical monuments remains untouched.
actual Presidential Palace to the Bay was not to be
historical monuments in t his section were to be respected
luxurious private residences surrounding the park where the
entrance necessarily had to be situated, were also remain
untouched. All this and the water level being near the
said area, were elements to be considered in order o find
So, a traffic circulation system at different levels, with a
pretty clover-like design, called the "Orchid", was
Furthermore, in order to avoid traffic bottlenecks, the toll
system has been installed on the East side of the way, where
CAPTION - The beautiful "Maximo Gomez Park" is the
background of Old Havana's lanes to the tunnel.
CAPTION - This foto [photo] shows machines and men working
hard in the Main bate of the Tunnel, during its
space available permitted the construction of a plaza of ten
lanes, which merge with the superhighway that will cross
and which will have six rapid and eight slow traffic lanes.
The most outstanding characteristics of the Tunnel are the
I) Zone of access from old Havana's side called, as
previously mentioned "the Orchid".
II) The Tunnel itself, composed of:
a) a tunnel section
more than 100 m. long built on site, with its ventilation
b) 5 prestressed
107.50 m. long, 22 m. wide and 7.10 m. high each, built in
dry dock and
site of their final submersion. The weight of each
tube is 16,000
c) a tunnel section
built on site
(East side) of similar characteristics as the one in old
d) a trench-like exist
approximately 500 m. long connecting with the toll
CAPTION - Factory of Tunnel's segments; all them made of
The tunnel will allow the circulation of 4 lanes of
vehicles, two in
each direction, with a clearance of 14 ft. and 11 ft. wide
for each way
Two sidewalks 3 ft. wide each have been provided for police
[surveillance], one at each side of the central
separates the two ways of circulation. These sidewalks
inter-communicated by 60 openings 2.20 by 1.20 m., placed
the entire length of said partition-wall.
The maximum slope of the Tunnel will be 5.75%. The
of the Tunnel, that is, the section which corresponds to the
is horizontal in an extension of 100 m.
Due to these dispositions, the channel of entry to the port
originally about 160m. Wide and 40 ft. deep, has remained
unchanged, thus offering the possibility of having a channel
m. wide and 45 ft. deep.
The Tunnel's ventilation will be provided for by the
of fresh air coming in from two ventilation towers
both shores of the entrance channel, at a distance of more
than 500 m.
from each other.
The installation of twelve fans manufactured by "Joy
Corporation" has been foreseen for this purpose, six in each
with sufficient capacity to insure the renewal of the air
Tunnel within approximately one minute's time.
The fresh air insufflated into the Tunnel will circulate
conduits installed throughout its entire length i.e., two
galleries 3.60 m. high and 1.50 m. wide, and will be evenly
through openings made approximately every 3 m. in the walls
The carbon monoxide contents inside the Tunnel are
controlled by devices manufactured by the "Mine Safety
installed near the entrance and exit of the Tunnel.
indications appearing on these carbon monoxide alarms will
simultaneously be reproduced in the control rooms, which
the employed on duty to put into service the necessary extra
fans to increase the supply of
CAPTION - A view of the going-out lanes of the Tunnel,
during its construction.
CAPTION - DRAWING - Plans of Havana's big submarine
display of skill and scientific work had been used in its
fresh air immediately.
The water accumulated from the rains in the Tunnel's
on the old Havana's and the East sides, will be received by
gutters and emptied into two big cistern placed at both
the portals. Vertical and automatically started
manufactured by "U.S. Pumps, Inc.", will insure final
to the sea.
Special care has been given to the lighting system as far as
design and particularly regarding the luminous levels,
in miad [mind] the great luminosity of the sky in Havana.
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