DOCUMENT  0234-66A

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[GENTE Magazine, Vol. 1, Havana, January 5, 1958, No. 1, American Edition]

Page 66-A
PHOTO CAPTION - Havana's Harbuor [Harbor]  Tunnel: a passageway to prosperity.


HAVANA'S expansion toward the East, which had been stopped to this day by the natural barrier of massive rocks protecting the entrance to its harbour [harbor], had been possible by a modern Tunnel, now finished according to President Batista's desires, which cross under Havana's Bay, connecting the Old City of Spanish colonial narrow streets with the vast extension of land on the opposite shore wich [which] gently rising from sea level, reach up to 60 m. of altitude approximately.

This land, until now unexploited, will develop into a new city called "Eastern Havana", beautiful, modern and planned according to the latest conception of town planning and landscaping: full of green open spaces, wide streets and magnificent avenues.

One of the most difficult problems solved in this work was the harmonious orthogonal encounder [encounter] of two heavy trafficts [traffic] that could eventually reach their highest peaks simultaneously and, at the same time, insure their even circulation.

This problem was rendered even more difficult due to the fact that the areas available for this purpose was limited, since it had been specifically stipulated in the contract that the perspective view from the

Page 66-B
PHOTO CAPTION - Main body of "Old Havana" is now connected to florious "East Havana" thanks to new Tunnel.

PHOTO CAPTION - All historical monuments remains untouched.

actual Presidential Palace to the Bay was not to be obstructed, all historical monuments in t his section were to be respected and the luxurious private residences surrounding the park where the Tunnel entrance necessarily had to be situated, were also remain untouched.  All this and the water level being near the surface of said area, were elements to be considered in order o find the right solution.

So, a traffic circulation system at different levels, with a pretty clover-like design, called the "Orchid", was designed.

Furthermore, in order to avoid traffic bottlenecks, the toll collecting system has been installed on the East side of the way, where the

Page 66-C
PHOTO CAPTION - The beautiful "Maximo Gomez Park" is the background of Old Havana's lanes to the tunnel.

PHOTO CAPTION - This foto [photo] shows machines and men working hard in the Main bate of the Tunnel, during its construction.

space available permitted the construction of a plaza of ten traffic lanes, which merge with the superhighway that will cross Eastern Havana and which will have six rapid and eight slow traffic lanes.

The most outstanding characteristics of the Tunnel are the following:
 I) Zone of access from old Havana's side called, as previously mentioned "the Orchid".

 II) The Tunnel itself, composed of:
       a) a tunnel section more than 100 m. long built on site, with its ventilation towers.
       b) 5 prestressed concrete tues 107.50 m. long, 22 m. wide and 7.10 m. high each, built in dry dock and floated
           to the site of their final submersion.  The weight of each tube is 16,000 Tons.
       c) a tunnel section built on site (East side) of similar characteristics as the one in old Havana's side.
       d) a trench-like exist approximately 500 m. long connecting with the toll collection Plaza.

Page 66-D
PHOTO CAPTION - Factory of Tunnel's segments; all them made of solid materials.

The tunnel will allow the circulation of 4 lanes of vehicles, two in each direction, with a clearance of 14 ft. and 11 ft. wide for each way of circulation.

Two sidewalks 3 ft. wide each have been provided for police surveyance [surveillance], one at each side of the central partition-wall which separates the two ways of circulation.  These sidewalks are inter-communicated by 60 openings 2.20 by 1.20 m., placed throughout the entire length of said partition-wall.

The maximum slope of the Tunnel will be 5.75%.  The central part of the Tunnel, that is, the section which corresponds to the third tube is horizontal in an extension of 100 m.

Due to these dispositions, the channel of entry to the port of Havana, originally about 160m. Wide and 40 ft. deep, has remained practically unchanged, thus offering the possibility of having a channel nearly 100 m. wide and 45 ft. deep.

The Tunnel's ventilation will be provided for by the insufflation of  fresh air coming in from two ventilation towers situated on both shores of the entrance channel, at a distance of more than 500 m. from each other.

The installation of twelve fans manufactured by "Joy Engineering Corporation" has been foreseen for this purpose, six in each tower, with sufficient capacity to insure the renewal of the air inside the Tunnel within approximately one minute's time.

The fresh air insufflated into the Tunnel will circulate inside special conduits installed throughout its entire length i.e., two lateral galleries 3.60 m. high and 1.50 m. wide, and will be evenly distributed through openings made approximately every 3 m. in the walls of said galleries.

The carbon monoxide contents inside the Tunnel are automatically controlled by devices manufactured by the "Mine Safety Appliance Co.", installed near the entrance and exit of the Tunnel.  The indications appearing on these carbon monoxide alarms will simultaneously be reproduced in the control rooms, which will enable the employed on duty to put into service the necessary extra number of fans to increase the supply of

Page 66-E
PHOTO CAPTION - A view of the going-out lanes of the Tunnel, during its construction.

PHOTO CAPTION - DRAWING - Plans of Havana's big submarine tunnel.  A display of skill and scientific work had been used in its building.

fresh air immediately.

The water accumulated from the rains in the Tunnel's approaches, both on the old Havana's and the East sides, will be received by underground gutters and emptied into two big cistern placed at both entrances, near the portals.  Vertical and automatically started electric pumps manufactured  by "U.S. Pumps, Inc.", will insure final evacuation to the sea.

Special care has been given to the lighting system as far as lamp design and particularly regarding the luminous levels, always bearing in miad [mind] the great luminosity of the sky in Havana.

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