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Official History of
II  Frente, Alpha 66, M.R.P.

June, 1965.

[NOTE: This history of Alpha 66 was obtained from an American who received it for a donation of six dollars.
               The American writes:

"Back in the 1960's I was a young, very anti-communist, idealistic high school student.
(I am still anti-communist and idealistic, but no longer quite so young, alas!)  I was in
mail contact with Alpha 66 and Comandos L, and for a couple of years my ambition was
to go to Florida, get training, and take part in raids against Castro.  Only the fact that a
bus ticket to Miami was $88 from Texas kept me from doing it.  I took Spanish in high
school solely because I wanted to get involved in all this...Ah, to be innocent again! I
recall sending a $6 donation, which was a lot of money to me at the time; it went into the
provisions for a boat that the US captured.  I got a very nice letter from a guy in the Miami
office thanking me; I don't suppose they had a lot of supporters of my age...

This circular has been prepared to furnish detailed information on II  Frente-Alpha 66-MRP and our struggle for Freedom and Democracy in Cuba through the destruction of the Communist regime of Fidel Castro.  The history, plan of action (Plan Omega), and aspirations for the Cuba of tomorrow, of our organization are briefly  covered.

I.  History of II  Frente-Alpha 66-M. R. P.

A.  El Segundo Frente Nacional del Escambray - The Second National Front of the Escambray
The Second National Front of the Escambray (II Frente) was organized 10 November 1957 at Banao, Las Villas Province, in the Escambray Mountains by Eloy Gutierrez Menoyo, Jesus Carreara, Domingo Ortega Gomez, Evarado Salas Valdes, Anastasio Cardenas and others.  The Second  Front was formed to fight the Batista dictatorship then ruling Cuba, and took its name from the Escambray Mountain range, 150 miles from Havana and the fact that it was a second front of war against the Batista regime, while, the rebels in the remote Sierra Maestra in Oriente Province, under Castro, constituted the "first front".  The II Frente rapidly grew in size, drawing support from the universities, non-Communist political parties, and other democratic elements, until it numbered 3,000 armed men, under the command of 23 year old Cmdte. Eloy Gutierrez Menoyo by the end of December 1958.  (The fact that II Frente, as contrasted to the 26 July Movement of Castro, has always been almost completely free of Communist infiltration is a source of great pride to our organization.)  With the triumph of the Revolution, II Frente, as with 98% of the Cuban people, was willing to accept the leadership of Fidel Castro, and most of the leaders and members returned to private life.  As the Communist ties of Castro and his cohorts became evident, II Frente gradually became opposed to and alienated from the government, and planned to return to war.  By mid - 1960, II Frente was in conspiracy against Castro; two of the leaders, Cmdtes Jesus Cabrera and William Morgan were arrested in October 1960 (and shot March 11, 1961), but most of the leadership escaped - many arriving in exile at Key West, January 27, 1961.  They were detained by immigration authorities at McAllen, Texas until June 8, 1961, and then released.  (Meanwhile, the thousands of guerrillas who had returned to the Escambray Mountains were gradually eliminated by Castro; the last survivors escaped to the US in early March 1961.)  After their release, the exiled leaders set about reorganizing II Frente in Miami, in exile, and coordinating their activities with their subordinates in Cuba who had escaped detection, and had re-established II Frente inside Cuba.  By late December 1961, Menoyo was able to announce that powerful guerrilla units had risen up in Cuba on November 10, 1961, and that II Frente Nacional del Escambray was again functioning as a military force in the Escambray mountains.  The military commander in the hills, Cmdte Evarado Salas, however, was captured and shot July 19, 1962; sector commander Capt. Alberto Tartabul died in battle in August; Capt. Adolfo Sargen Perez died in May 1963; and many other leaders and soldiers of II Frente died in subsequent months, but replacements have always been ready and willing, and II Frente continues to exists as an organized guerrilla force inside the island to the present.  Since June 1961, the exiled leaders and men of the organization have devoted all their efforts to aiding their companions inside Cuba and preparing to return to battle there, themselves.

B.  Alpha 66
Alpha 66, the prototype and the most famous of the Cuban exile commando organizations, was founded in February 1962 in Puerto Rico, by Antonio Veciana, from members of the Association of Public Accountants of Cuba (in exile), former businessmen, and former associates in the M.R.P. underground in Cuba. (where Veciana had been chief-of-action for three of Cuba's six provinces) The organization took its name from the first letter of the Greek alphabet, signifying the beginning of the war against Castro from exile, and from the 66 men present at the first meeting.  Originally organized to use the members' financial experience to raise money for military action against Castro, it soon became one of the most famous anti-Castro military organizations.  The first of its famous commando raids occurred on September 10, 1962, when two Cuban ships were destroyed and an English freighter, the Newlane, damaged in Caibarien harbor.  The raiders managed to defeat pursuers in an air-sea battle and escape.  The next attack followed on October 8, 1962, when commandos landed on the Cuban coast and attacked a Russian base at Isabella de Sagua, in Las Villas Province, capturing arms and flags, and killing 20 Russian soldiers.  Shortly thereafter, on October 19, 1962, it was announced that Alpha 66 and II Frente Nacional del Escambray had united to further the war against Communism in Cuba.  Under the command of Cmdte Eloy Gutierrez Menoyo, the next attack was carried out at Juan Francisco Beach in Las Villas Province December 4, 1962.  The next and most important attack came on March 17, 1963, when the commandos entered the harbor of Isabella de Sagua and sank the Russian ship Lvov at the dock, by gunfire.  This, coupled with a similar attack by another group of raiders a few days later, against the Russian ship Baku, resulted in the attempted suppression of the activities of II Frente-Alpha 66 by US authorities, in obedience to Russian demands.  Leaders were arrested and ordered not to leave the limits of Dade County, Florida; pressured by the US, the British raided the base at Key Williams in the Bahamas and confiscated much material; Menoyo was arrested by a British naval vessel in international waters.  Nevertheless, despite this harassment, the organization vowed to continue: On May 19, 1963, in the most spectacular raid to date, a training camp for foreign Communists at Tarar Beach, 16 miles from Havana, was attacked and destroyed.  Meanwhile, Menoyo was in New York City, to announce that a pact was being signed in Tampa, Florida, proclaiming the incorporation of the M.R.P. into the alliance of II Frente and Alpha 66.

C.   M. R. P. - Movimiento Revolucionario del Pueblo
The MRP, or Revolutionary Movement of the People, was formed inside Cuba by a group of high officials of the Revolutionary Government of Cuba, and others, who considered that the treasonous adherence to Communism by Fidel Castro had been a betrayal of the Revolution.  By late 1960, the MRP had become the most important anti-Castro underground organization inside Cuba.  Because of the large size and high degree of activity, the top leaders of the MRP soon became known to the G-2, or Secret Police, and were gradually driven into exile, by police pursuit.  The round-up of all suspected anti-Communists at the time of the Bay of Pigs fiasco also damaged the organization, although it was able to rebuild.  A comprehensive plan for a rebellion was attempted to be put into operation in October of 1961, but an informer betrayed the attempt, and Veciana and other leaders were forced to flee.  In exile, these leaders and others organized a branch of the MRP to aid the organization still inside Cuba, which had again been rebuilt.
With the unification of the three groups on May 19, 1963, all efforts were devoted solely to military preparation for Plan Omega.  For over a year the organization devoted itself to raising funds establishing delegations, recruiting men and obtaining a secure base for training and operations.  On September 17, 1963, Menoyo declared that he expected to be able to begin military operations in about six months.  In the first week of May, 1964, amid an air of mystery and expectation, Menoyo and a number of his former officers and men disappeared completely, followed by others in the weeks that passed.  Nothing except rumor was heard by the public for eight months, and then, on January 24, 1965, the Communist government of Cuba announced that Cmdte Eloy Gutierrez Menoyo, and three of his officers, Captains Domingo Ortega Gomez, Noel Salas Santos, and Ramonin Quesada Acosta had been captured by militia and army troops the day before at Baracoa, Oriente Province.  After a propaganda display on Cuban television, the four have been confined in G-2 prisons in Havana, without a word as to their future fate. (After their capture, Castro claimed that the Dominican Republic had allowed II Frente-Alpha 66-MRP to operate a base in that country, and that the government had given the organization various forms of military aid.)  On February 9, 1965 Cmdte Armando Fleites Diaz, an MD graduate of Havana University, and formerly Menoyo's second in command, was named military commander by the leaders of II Frente-Alpha66-MRP, and initiated plan to continue the military operations as before. On April 24, 1965, Communist dominated rebellion broke out in the Dominican Republic, causing removal of the base of operations to another area temporarily.  At present writing, July 1965, Plan Omega continues in preparation as before, with only minor changes.       

II.   Plan Omega
In the history of II Frente-Alpha 66-MRP and its military operations against the Communist regime in Cuba, there has been two stages: the period of commando operations, from September 1962 to May 1963, and the period of Plan Omega, from May 19, 1963 to the present.  The famous commando attacks were carried out with a dual purpose: First, to demonstrate that the aura of invincibility that had grown up around the Castro tyranny after the failure of the Bay of Pigs, was a myth - that Castro was vulnerable and could be attacked and defeated at selected weak points; second, to bring proof to those still suffering inside Cuba, particularly to those members of the organization still fighting in the underground of the MRP and as guerrillas of II Frente, that the Cubans in exile had not forgotten their country and their duty to it, and were continuing to fight to free Cuba from exile.  With the completion of the series of attacks, the exile community and the people inside Cuba had learned that Castro regime was vulnerable - especially after commandos of II Frente-Alpha 66 had landed on the beach at Tarara, 16 miles from the heavily guarded capitol, and had destroyed a Communist training school there.  Since the objective was the eventual liberation of Cuba, it was time to turn from these military/propaganda operations to the strictly military operations that could defeat the Communist regime decisively, and destroy it.  At this time, taking into account both the capacities of the organization inside and outside Cuba, and the strengths and weaknesses of the Communist regime, a coordinated plan was drawn-up, encompassing these aspects, and containing many elements designed to direct the strength of the organization most effectively to the liberation of Cuba.  From Omega, the last letter of the Greek alphabet - signifying the end, this plan was proclaimed to the public as Plan Omega, the end of the Communist regime.  The plan, following the historical pattern of resistance to tyranny in Cuba's history, centers around the internal rebellion, sparked by external elements.  Often in describing "Plan Omega", it is easier to mention first what it is not, since mistaken impressions seem to envision completely different military/political strategies.  First, Plan Omega involves no frontal attack or invasion nor conventional warfare of any form.  After the sad experience of the Bay of Pigs, it should be obvious that, with any army of 100,000, a militia of 300,000 and a strong defensive air force and anti-aircraft defense system, supporting the Castro-Communist regime, to engage in "conventional war" with Cuba, involving  involving landings on beaches, etc. would be impossible to all except the most powerful military nations on earth.  Second, Plan Omega does not support the organization of any Cuban Government-in exile, but rather calls for the establishment of a Government-in-arms inside Cuba, representing both those in Cuba who are opposed to and fighting against the Communist regime, and those from exile who have returned to their country to fight.  Third, Plan Omega does not depend or nor expect any action on the part of the OAS, the United States, or any Latin American nation against Castro's Cuba since II Frente-Alpha66-MRP feels that Cuban Communism is a Cuban problem, to be solved - and destroyed by the efforts and sacrifices of the Cuban people, with any help that may be forthcoming from individual supporters from other nations.  Fourth, while II Frente-Alpha66-MRP fully supports all economic measures taken against the Communist regime in Havana, it feels that war, rather than blockades and boycotts hold the key to the liberation of Cuba - a Second War for Independence to be waged by the Cuban people themselves for the redemption of their homeland.  Rejecting these methods as impractical, ineffective or unfeasible, then our organization turns to the historic pattern of Cuban rebellion, dating back to the struggle for independence against colonial Spain in 1868-95.  Relying upon elements still inside Cuba, those who have continued there the struggle as guerrilla units of II Frente Nacional del Escambray, or in the nation-wide underground of the MRP, plus other anti-Communist elements that have escaped detection or capture, Plan Omega calls for a renewal of guerrilla warfare and sabotage on a wide scale.  This rebellion or insurrection however, must be sparked and led from the outside by elements in exile, as has always been the case in Cuba to provide the leadership, and to provide the impetus and organization to the revolt by their return.  Following the classic pattern of guerrilla warfare and rebellion (as illustrated by current Communist efforts throughout the world), Plan Omega then envisions a gradual increase of rebellion inside Cuba, until, with the increasing successes of guerrillas, the revolt will rise into a vast sea of increasingly open opposition to the Communist regime, until Communism is eventually swept from the island forever. Plan Omega realizing that the most difficult aspect of the plan is the establishment of the guerrilla front in the mountains, when the guerrillas and cadres must fight fierce Communist resistance to continue their existence as a force, accepts that perhaps many attempts will be made and many will fail, with the loss of many officers and men, before the first stage is passed, and the guerrilla front is secure in its existence, and able to assume the offensive.  With this grim but willing determination to accept early defeats to assure the later establishment of military force inside the island, Plan Omega is invincible.  With willingness to continue until the ultimate victory, regardless of how many must fall to achieve the liberty of our country, success is inevitable.

Our platform or Program, as a basis for the Free Cuba of tomorrow, was accepted by II Frente-Alpha66-MRP at the time of their unification, at Tampa, Florida, May 19, 1963, in a pact signed in front of the statue of Jose Marti, Apostle of the Liberation of Cuba.  The present platform or program is based on an earlier one drawn up by II  Frente, a year earlier.  In a long and detailed document, the ideology of the organization was detailed, together with recommendations and suggestions for the cure of various ills that exist in Cuba society that paved the way for the dictatorship of Batista and the Communist regime of Castro.  The eight page document has been translated into English, and summarized as the following twelve points:

1.    A representative, democratic system of government, with the re-establishment of all human rights and liberties; condemnation of all dictatorships.
2.    The authoritative re-establishment of the Constitution of 1940, with its juridicial [juridical] powers and laws.
3.    The exercise of popular sovereignty through the celebration of prompt free elections.
4.    A democratic land reform, which will determine just payments for land and facilitate its ownership by the farmer who works it.
5.    The acknowledgment  and respect of the rights of private property and a system of free competition within present day economic principles.
6.    The acknowledgment of the gains of labor and the freedom to organize unions.
7.    The support of the establishment of a program of compulsory military service.
8.    The refusal to acknowledge any treaties or commitments made by the present Communist regime, especially those with the Communist block, with whom relations will never be maintained.
9.    The freedom of education, supervision of public schools, respect for private education, and support of full autonomy of the Universities.
10.    Support for a plan of low-cost public housing for classes of small resources, to be available by means of long-term payments to be established by law.
11.    The demand for the banishment of Communism in all its forms, and with all its fellow-traveling organizations.
12.    The support for equality of all Cubans before the law, with the guarantee of freedom of worship, and the acceptance of moral standards of Christianity as the criterion of human existence.

(Complete copies of the platform in Spanish are available)


National Headquarters in Exile: 109 S.W. 12th Avenue, Miami, Florida
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