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U.S. Policy Toward Cuba

[REFERENCE: An Alternative U.S. Policy Toward Cuba by PACCA, Washington DC. Pamphlet. No date but possibly printed after 1988 and before 1992.]


1500s:  Spanish colonize Cuba

1898: U.S. forces enter Cuban War of Independence; Spain concedes defeat in three months; U.S. establishes military government.

1901: "Platt Amendment" allowing U.S. intervention in Cuban affairs incorporated in new Cuban constitution; U.S. forces leave.

1906-1909: U.S. forces occupy Cuba to "restore order"

1912: U.S. forces intervene to "protect American interests"

1917-1922: U.S. forces stationed in Cuba to "protect American interests"

1933-1934: Following overthrow of Machado dictatorship, U.S. ambassador Summer Welles forces the creation of a government acceptable to Washington, as U.S. naval forces sail near Havana.

1952: Fulgencio Batista takes power by military coup

July 26, 1953: Fidel Castro leads attack on Moncada barracks, beginning armed opposition to Batista dictatorship

January 1959: Batista flees; revolutionary forces enter Havana

May 1959: Agrarian reform law nationalizes one third of the arable land in Cuba.

January 1960: Soviet Foreign Minister Anastas Mikoyan visits Cuba and signs trade agreement

March 1960: Eisenhower approves planning for Bay of Pigs invasion

June 1960: U.S. oil companies, urged by State Department, refuse to refine Soviet crude oil at Cuban refineries; Cuba nationalizes refineries

July 1960: Washington suspends Cuban sugar quota, blocking 80 percent of Cuban exports to United States.  Soviet Union agrees to buy Cuban sugar

August 1960: Cuba nationalizes $1 billion worth of private U.S. investment; Washington imposes  trade embargo

January 1961: Washington breaks diplomatic relations with Cuba

April 1961: CIA-sponsored invasion force of 1200 exiles lands at Bay of Pigs and is defeated within 72 hours

January 1962: OAS expels Cuba

October 1962: Soviets send nuclear missiles to Cuba, Washington threatens force to remove them, Soviets pull missiles out in exchange for U.S. pledge not to attack Cuba
1962-1968: CIA organizes paramilitary attacks against Cuba, including assassination plots against Cuban leaders

July 1964: OAS votes to require all members to cut diplomatic and trade relations with Cuba; only Mexico refuses

October 1965: Boatlift from Camariorca [Camarioca] brings 3,000 Cubans to United States [NOTE: 3,000 is not correct]

September 1970: Washington warns Moscow to stop building nuclear submarine base at Cienfuegos, Cuba.

July 1975: After a number of countries (Peru, Barbados, Guyana, Trinidad, Argentina, Panama, Chile, and Venezuela) broke the 1964 OAS sanction and established relations with Cuba, and OAS majority -- including United States -- votes to lift diplomatic and economic sanctions.  Washington opts to retain its own trade embargo, but allows foreign subsidiaries of U.S. corporations to trade with Cuba.

November 1975: At the request of the new Angolan government, Cuba sends combat troops to help Angola repulse an invasion by South African forces launched October 23, 1975; eventually 30,000 troops are sent.

December 1975: U.S. President Gerald Ford says Cuban involvement in Angola precludes possibility of restoring relations and breaks off secret negotiations underway since 1974.

October 1976: Bomb on Cubana Airlines plane kills 73 people.  Luis Posada Carriles, Cuban exile and former CIA employee, arrested for bombing in Venezuela.

March 1977: Carter administration lifts ban on travel to Cuba

December 1977: Cuban troops sent to Ethiopia at government's request, derailing process of normalizing relations begun by the Carter administration.

November-December 1978: Dialogue between members of the Cuban-American community an Cuban government leads to release of 3,600 political prisoners and agreements on travel and emigration.

April 1979: Grenada restores diplomatic relations with Cuba; subsequently establishes close political and economic ties.

July 1979: Revolutionary Nicaraguan government restores relations with Cuba; subsequently establishes political ties and receives military advice in war with U.S.-backed contras

April 1980: Cuba announces that anyone wishing to leave can be picked up at port of Mariel.  Over five months 120,000 leave.

April 1982: Reagan administration re-imposes ban on travel to Cuba.

January 1983: Bolivia restores diplomatic relations with Cuba

October 1983: United States invades Grenada.  There are 636 Cuban construction workers and 43 military advisers; 24 are killed, 57 wounded, and 642 captured.

December 1984: Washington and Havana reach agreement under which Cuba receives 2,746 "excludables" who arrived during Mariel exodus, while United States permits immigration of up to 20,000 Cubans annually.

May 1985: United States begins anti-government propaganda broadcasts to Cuba over Radio Marti; Cuba suspends immigration agreement.

October 1985: Reagan administration bans travel by Cuban officials to United States.

October 1985: Uruguay restores diplomatic relations with Cuba.

June 1986: Brazil restores diplomatic relations with Cuba.

November 1987: Eight Latin American nations call for Cuban readmission to OAS.

November 1987: Cuban-U.S. immigration agreement restored; Cuban detainees in United States riot.

 February 1988: Angola agrees to send all Cuban troops home as part of a comprehensive Southern Africa peace settlement under negotiation.

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